Culture of Bali

In Bali, there is one literary verse that is used as the slogan of the Indonesian state symbol, namely: Bhineka Tunggal Ika Tan Hana Dharma Manggrua, which means ‘Though different but still one, not two (God – Truth)’. Can be understood if the Balinese people can co-exist with other religions such as Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, and others. This view is a rebuttal to the temporary judgment of people that Hinduism worships many Gods. Although the Hindu community in Bali called God with various names but the target remains one, God Almighty or Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa.

Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva gods, called Tri Murti, though disaggregated by three, are associated only as a life-death process or utpeti-stiti-pralina. Dewata Nawa Sanga as the nine gods who occupy the eight directions of the wind and one in the middle despite being separated nine then eleven when integrated with the layers of space toward the vertical bottom-up-center or bhah-bwah-swah, is one as God’s power in guarding balance of the universe. So it is with other names and titles that are meant to give a title specifically to God’s omnipotence.

Hindu belief in the existence of God / Hyang Widhi that Wyapapi Wyapaka or everywhere is also in itself – is a guidance that always reminds the link between karma or deeds and rewards or consequences, leading the human behavior towards Tri Kaya Parisudha as a unity manacika, wacika, and kayika or the unification of thought, speech, and good deeds.

Hindus believe that the universe and everything in it is God’s creation as well as God’s gift to mankind to be used for their survival. Therefore the literary guidance of Hinduism teaches that the universe is always preserved and its harmony which in his understanding is translated in the philosophy of Tri Hita Karana as three paths to the perfection of life, namely:
Human relationship with God; as atma or soul poured in the form of religious teachings that arrange the pattern of spiritual communication through various ritual offerings to God. Therefore, in a community of Balinese people called Desa Adat, there is certainly a means of Parhyangan or Pura, referred to as Kahyangan Tiga, as a medium in realizing human relationships with Ida Sang Hyang Widhi. Human relationships with the natural environment; as an angga or body illustrated clearly in the order of the residential area and its supporting area (agriculture) which in one area of ‚Äč‚ÄčAdat Village is called as Desa Pakraman.
Human relationships with fellow human beings; as khaya or power which in one village of Adat called as Krama Desa or citizen, is the driving force to combine atma and angga.

Implementation of various forms of offerings and worship to Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa by Hindus is called Yadnya or sacrifices / sacrifices in various forms on the basis of a sincere conscience. Yadnya implementation of this essentially can not be separated from Tri Hita Karana with elements of God, the universe, and humans.

Supported by various religious philosophies as the starting point of the doctrine of God’s omnipotence, the Hindu teachings outline the execution of Yadnya in five parts called Panca Yadnya, which are parsed into:

1. God Yadnya
Offering and worshiping to Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, Yadnya Dewa ceremony is generally held in various Pura, Sanggah, and Pamerajan (family sanctuary) in accordance with its level. Yadnya God’s ceremony is commonly referred to as piodalan, aci, or pujawali.
2. Yadnya Pitra
Respect for the deceased ancestors, parents and families, who gave birth, nurtured, and colored in a family environment. The Hindu community in Bali believes that the ancestral spirits, deceased parents, and families, according to the karma built during their lifetime, will lead to union with Ida Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa. The surviving family should carry out various ceremonies to make the process and stage of unification work well.
3. Rsi Yadnya
Gifts and tributes to the wise, clever, and clever, who have established the basic teachings of Hinduism and the order of manners in behaving.
4. Yadnya man
A process for nurturing, respecting, and respecting oneself and the nuclear family (husband, wife, child). In the course of a Balinese man, to him various processions have been done since in the womb, born, grew up, married, begotten grandchildren, until death before. Ceremony magedong-gedongan, otonan, menek kelih, pawiwahan, until Ngaben, is a form of Hindu ceremony in Bali which is included in the level of Manusa Yadnya.
5. Bhuta yadnya
A procession of offerings and spiritual preservation of strength and the resources of the universe. Hinduism dictates that man and the universe are formed of the same elements, namely the Panca Maha Bhuta, composed of Akasa (vacuum), Bayu (air), Teja (hot), Apah (liquid), and the Pertiwi solid). Because human beings have the ability to think (idep) then human beings are obliged to preserve the universe including other living things (animals and plants). Panca Maha Bhuta, which has enormous power, if not controlled and not maintained will cause disaster to the survival of the universe. Attention to the preservation of nature is what makes Bhuta Yadnya ceremony often done by Hindus both incidentally and periodically. Bhuta Yadnya has levels ranging from masegeh ceremony in the form of small ceremonies performed every day until the ceremony caru and tawur agung performed periodically on wuku (one week), sasih (one month), up to hundreds of years.

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